Assessment and Evaluation of Learning


Through the use of effective assessments, both formative and summative, proper planning and instruction can occur in any classroom. It is imperative to create relevant, reliable, and valid assessments so that student learning can be evaluated. Assessments can also be used to reflect on teaching and instructional methods and help determine what to use in future lessons to differentiate for student learning.

Both formative and summative assessments are used daily in my first grade classroom. It is my philosophy that young students can easily be over-assessed so I focused on using formative assessments daily in my classroom. All student work was collected daily, checked over for accuracy, and data recorded on each student when necessary. While most daily assignments are simply for completion, it is important to monitor student performance on daily work. I made sure to constantly monitor students while they were working on seat work in reading and math, as well as when I met with them in my group. I also formatively assessed spelling daily by asking students to spell one of his/her words as a ticket from leaving my reading group. The chart I kept track of words on can be viewed below. I also touched base with the instructional aid in the classroom for reading and for math to gain information on how the students performed in each of their respective groups. During science and social studies, I constantly questioned and interacted with students to gain a sense of what was being understood and what still needed clarification. Summative assessments were used in my classroom for spelling, reading comprehension and vocabulary on the weekly stories, and dictation sentences. Also, unit tests were taken in reading at the end of the unit in the Scott Foresman curriculum. The scores on the Reading Unit 2 test can be viewed below, broken down by comprehension, phonics, and writing/grammar. Students also completed a Unit Test on National Symbols. The scores on this assessment can also be viewed below.

Formative Spelling Assessment


Unit 2 Reading Scores

Student
Phonics
(out of 20)

Comprehension
(out of 15)

Writing/
Grammar
(out of 5)

Total
Percentage
A
19
11
5
35/40
88%
B
20
13
5
38/40
95%
C
18
10
5
33/40
83%
D
20
14
5
39/40
98%
E
20
14
5
39/40
98%
F
20
14
4
38/40
95%
G
20
12
5
37/40
93%
H
20
14
5
39/40
98%
I
20
14
5
39/40
98%
J
20
13
5
38/40
95%
K
20
12
5
37/40
93%
L
19
13
5
37/40
93%
M
20
13
5
38/40
95%
N
19
12
5
36/40
90%
O
20
13
5
38/40
95%
P
20
13
5
38/40
95%
Q
20
13
5
38/40
95%









National Symbols Assessment Scores

Student
Score
Percentage
A
7/7
100%
B
7/7
100%
C
7/7
100%
D
7/7
100%
E
7/7
100%
F
7/7
100%
G
7/7
100%
H
7/7
100%
I
7/7
100%
J
7/7
100%
K
7/7
100%
L
7/7
100%
M
7/7
100%
N
7/7
100%
O
7/7
100%
P
7/7
100%
Q
7/7
100%


Growth Over Time


During my student teaching, the first grade class I worked with showed an incredible amount of growth. Much of this growth was observed through formative assessments since students are learning so much information at such a fast rate. One drastic growth is apparent in the students' daily writing in his/her journal. Below are samples of student writing from September, October, and November. While no official grade is taken on the writing, teacher corrections can be viewed on each sample. Student progress is evident through the type of corrections made, student handwriting, and the amount of detail provided. Students are instructed to check for capitalization, understanding, punctuation, and spacing daily while completing his/her journal writing.




Instructional Activity Based on Assessment Results


One of the reading skills during my time student teaching was 'Cause and Effect.' Students were introduced to the concept through various stories in the Scott Foresman curriculum used by the school. I used a whole group think aloud lesson to introduce the concept to my first grade class. The lesson plan can be viewed below as well as the follow up activity for students to complete at his/her seat. After viewing the student work, it was clear that many of them did not understand the concept. The students' writing was not comprehensible and most had nothing to do with an activity that made them happy. To ensure that I was being fair to all students, since they vary in writing ability, I asked students to orally explain what they had drawn. The responses from students did not follow the correct 'cause and effect' model I had depicted. I knew instantly that I needed to find another way to teach this concept to my class. I modified my lesson plans for the following day to re-teach the concept of 'cause and effect' to the class. The lesson plan for the following day can also be viewed below. After re-teaching 'cause and effect' to the students, they completed a writing modeled after the new text introduced. While this was not taken for a formal grade, I looked over each students' writing and it was evident that they all grasped the concept much better than the initial introduction.

Cause and Effect Lesson 11.18 - rubric and activity page included



Cause and Effect Follow-up Lesson 11.19 - link to web activity included



Student Work Samples




Assessment Creation Project


The following is an Assessment Creation Project for a 1st grade Social Studies unit on symbols and important people. Also included is a discussion on the validity and reliability of the assessment. Below is a reflection on the assignment. A table of specifications was used to create each question to assure that each standard and level of understanding was addressed.


Reflection:
This assignment demonstrates my ability to create assessments that provide both a valid and reliable representation of student learning. The assessment is valid in that it is a social studies test for a social studies unit and it provides an accurate representation of all of the intended learning outcomes. This is evidenced in the table of specifications that I created after unpacking the standards. By addressing various cognitive levels for the content of the unit, the assessment has high criterion and content validity. It is measuring the students' knowledge on information that is taught in the corresponding unit. The assessment is reliable due to the variety of questions used in the assessment: select response and supply response. This should assess the students' learning in multiple ways. Also, by asking multiple questions for each intended learning outcome (ILO), random error should be minimized and learning should still be evident from the other question(s) for the ILO. By completing this assignment, I now possess the ability to create valid and reliable assessments for my students as I enter into the teaching profession.